Responding to Young Earth Creationism: Additional Resources to Explore

STEPHEN O. MOSHIER ( is chair of the Department of Geology, where he is a professor, and director of the Black Hills Science at Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL

See Merrit (2015) for an accurate exploration of what it means to be an evangelical, with its theological commitments and historical social-political engagements. The definitive history of creationism is provided by Numbers (2006), but a summary is offered by Montgomery (2012). Livingstone (1987) describes how many of the conservative theologians of the early fundamentalist movement accepted old earth geology and various versions of evolution. A collection of faith vs. science popular myths are debunked in Numbers (2010). Moshier, et al. (2009) explore the history of teaching geology at evangelical Wheaton College.

Livingstone, D. N., 1987, Darwin's Forgotten Defenders-The Encounter between Evangelical Theology and Evolutionary Thought: Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans, 210 p.

Merrett, J., 2015, Defining 'Evangelical': (accessed February 2018)

Montgomery, D., 2012, The evolution of creationism: GSA Today v. 22, no. 11, p. 4-9, doi: 10.1130/GSATG158A.1

Moshier, S. O., Maas, D. E., and Greenberg, J. K., 2009. From the beginning: faith and geology at evangelical Wheaton College, in Kobel-Ebert, M., ed., Geology and Religion: Historical Views of an Intense Relationship between Harmony and Hostility:Geological Society, London, Special Publications 310, p. 301–316, doi:10.1144/SP310.29.

Numbers, R. L., 2006, The Creationists: From Scientific Creationism to Intelligent Design, Expanded Edition: Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 624 p.

Numbers, R. L., ed., 2010, Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and Religion: Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 320 p.

Evangelical approaches to interpreting Genesis

These books reflect the diverse approaches to interpreting Genesis by evangelicals, including views that advocate mainstream science.

Barrett, M., and Caneday, A., eds., 2013, Four Views on The Historical Adam: Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 288 p.

Charles, D. J., 2013, Reading Genesis 1-2: An Evangelical Conversation: Peabody, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publishers, 240 p.

Collins, C. J., 2003, Science and Faith: Friends or Foes?: Wheaton, Illinois, Crossway, 448p.

Haarsma, D. B., and Haarsma, L. D., 2011, Origins, Christian Perspectives on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design: Grand Rapids, Michigan, Faith Alive Christian Resources, 315 p.

Longman III, T., and Walton, J.H., 2018, The Lost World of the Flood: Mythology, Theology, and the Deluge Debate: Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 192 p.

Stump, J.B., ed., 2017, Four Views on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design: Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 240 p.

Walton, J.H., 2009, The Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate: Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 192 p.

Walton, J.H., 2015, The Lost World of Adam and Eve: Genesis 2-3 and the Human Origins Debate: Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 256 p.

Critiques of YEC and Flood Geology for Christian Readers

Hill, C., Davidson, G., Ranney, W., and Helble, T., eds., 2016, The Grand Canyon, Monument to an Ancient Earth: Grand Rapids, Michigan, Kregel Publications, 240 p.

Young, D.A. and Stearley, R. F., 2008, The Bible, Rocks and Time, Geological Evidence for the Age of the Earth: Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 510 p.

On Creationism in the Classroom

Berkman, M.B., Pacheco J.S., and Plutzer, E., 2008, Evolution and Creationism in America's classrooms: A national portrait, PLOS Biology 6(5):e124.

Isaak, M., 2007, The Counter-Creationism Handbook: Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, University of California Press, 330 p.

Website Resources

American Association or the Advancement of Science DoSER - "Building on AAAS's long-standing commitment to relate scientific knowledge and technological development to the purposes and concerns of society at large, the Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER) facilitates communication between scientific and religious communities." One initiative, Science for Seminaries provides curricular materials to equip students preparing for ministry to be more familiar with current science and technology. Some excellent videos on evolution were produced that could be shown in any college classroom (available at

American Scientific Affiliation - "an international network of Christians in the sciences." North American based.

Author of Life - For high school students: Making connections between Faith and Biology through film (seven brief videos)

BioLogos - "BioLogos invites the church and the world to see the harmony between science and biblical faith as we present an evolutionary understanding of God's creation."

Canadian Scientific and Christian Affiliation – "...a fellowship of scientists and those interested in science, who want to understand how science should best interact with the life-giving Christian tradition."

Christians in Science - "an international network of those concerned with the relationship between science and Christian faith, open to scientists, teachers, students and all those with an interest in this dialogue." United Kingdom based.

The GeoChristian - "..a blog primarily about the relationship between the Earth sciences and Christianity."

Naturalis Historia - A blog "Exploring the Intersection of Science and Faith in the Spirit of John Ray"

Solid Rock Lectures - "Bringing contemporary geology to seminaries and Christian venues."

« Previous Page