The Earth's Heat Budget
http://nagt.org/nagt/teaching_resources/teachingmaterials/9266.html

Roy Plotnick, National Association of Geoscience Teachers

Hands-on laboratory activity that allows students to investigate the effects of distance and angle on the input of solar radiation at Earth's surface, the role played by albedo, the heat capacity of land and water, and how these cause the seasons. Students predict radiative heating based on simple geometry and experiment to test their hypotheses.

Discuss this Resource»

The tilt of Earthâ€™s axis relative to its orbit around the Sun results in predictable changes in the duration of daylight and the amount of sunlight received at any latitude throughout a year. These changes cause the annual cycle of seasons and associated temperature changes.
Sunlight reaching the Earth can heat the land, ocean, and atmosphere. Some of that sunlight is reflected back to space by the surface, clouds, or ice. Much of the sunlight that reaches Earth is absorbed and warms the planet.

Energy Literacy

Energy is a quantity that is transferred from system to system.
1.1 Energy is a quantity.
The energy of a system or object that results in its temperature is called thermal energy.
1.2 Thermal energy.
Energy is a physical quantity that follows precise natural laws.
Energy is a physical quantity.

Excellence in Environmental Education Guidelines

1. Questioning, Analysis and Interpretation Skills:B) Designing investigations
B) Designing investigations.
1. Questioning, Analysis and Interpretation Skills:C) Collecting information
C) Collecting information.
2. Knowledge of Environmental Processes and Systems:2.1 The Earth as a Physical System:A) Processes that shape the Earth
A) Processes that shape the Earth.
2. Knowledge of Environmental Processes and Systems:2.1 The Earth as a Physical System:C) Energy
C) Energy.

Because the earth turns daily on an axis that is tilted relative to the plane of the earth's yearly orbit around the sun, sunlight falls more intensely on different parts of the earth during the year. The difference in intensity of sunlight and the resulting warming of the earth's surface produces the seasonal variations in temperature.
Explore the map of concepts related to this benchmark
Light and other electromagnetic waves can warm objects. How much an object's temperature increases depends on how intense the light striking its surface is, how long the light shines on the object, and how much of the light is absorbed.
Explore the map of concepts related to this benchmark

Notes From Our Reviewers The CLEAN collection is hand-picked and rigorously reviewed for scientific accuracy and classroom effectiveness. Read what our review team had to say about this resource below or learn more about how CLEAN reviews teaching materials Teaching Tips | Science | Pedagogy | Technical Details

Teaching Tips

• Educator might want to change the reference to Chicago to the location of the school. This would require creating a new version of both the Powerpoint and the student activity sheet.
• Clarify the geometric relation between latitude and the noon sun angle.
• Assessment is suggested, but it would benefit from a few more questions that engage students in abstracting from the activity and doing independent thinking.

• Students make simple measurements of energy and connect these to Earth's processes.
• Educator might have to find additional background materials.
• Activity tests misconceptions with hands-on experimentation through which students learn about topics that may seem complex until you start playing with them.The activity effectively addresses the misconception of the reason for the seasons being the distance between Sun and Earth.

• Hands-on small group lab activity in which students experimentally measure three important factors of Earth's heating budget (distance to sun and angle, albedo, heat capacity).
• Student learning of the complex content is well guided by questions.
• Hands-on activities and measurements followed by guiding questions will help visual learners to understand the concept.
• Powerpoint presentation should be used to support this activity. The link is given in the reference materials but is easy to miss - see the supporting references section.
• Elegant pedagogic design.
• Great way of relating the abstract concept of Earth's heat budget to local conditions (in exercise: Chicago).
• Students will have to follow instructions carefully in order to collect the correct measurements.
• Students will probably need consistent guidance through the activities.

Technical Details/Ease of Use

• Solar cells might not be readily available but are not an extravagant purchase from a typical science budget.
• If the experimental part of the activity takes up too much class time, parts of the activity could be done with online interactives.

Have you used these materials with your students? Do you have insights to share with other educators about their use? Please share with the community by adding a comment below.

Please use this space only for discussion about teaching with these particular materials.
For more general discussion about teaching climate literacy please use our general discussion boards.
To report a problem or direct a comment to the CLEAN project team please use our feedback form (or the feedback link at the bottom of every page).
Off-topic posts will be deleted.