Douglas E. Rawlings, Annual Review of Microbiology
This 29-page journal article is a review of heavy metal mining using microbes. It details the history of biomining, general characteristics of biomining microbes, biodiversity of biomining microbes, molecular biology and genomics, current biomining processes, mechanism of biooxidation, and future directions. Biomining microbes discussed in detail are mesophiles and thermophiles (generally), Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum, Acidiphilium, Sulfobacillus, Ferroplasma, Sulfolobus, Metallosphaera, and Acidianus. Biomining processes discussed are irrigation-type processes and stirred tank processes. The resource includes scientific illustrations of biomining processes. A paid subscription to Annual Reviews is required to view this article.